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Introduction: What Future For The Trust?

Even the most devoted believer in the rights of humans to dispose of their own assets and to arrange their affairs to their own benefit would have to agree that the trust is an anachronism. But then so is offshore itself. The harmonisers would say that it is irrational and unacceptable to allow a person to separate himself artificially from his property for his personal gain. The tax authorities have dealt with the trust by ignoring it and bypassing it - the few that haven't yet done so will surely fall into line quite soon. So if the trust is not a barrier to a tax collector, why, logically, should it be a barrier to a creditor?

As much as the trust seems to be somehow unethical when used for personal enrichment or protection in defiance of the public interest, it is obviously the right instrument when used to hold assets on behalf of others. The 'Unit Trust', the pensions trustee and other quasi-public guardians of private interests are eminently acceptable, superior to the 'Code' equivalents, and would have had to be invented if they didn't already exist, as is amply proven by their wholesale adoption in 'Code' countries. A genuine generation-hopping anti-inheritance tax trust also seems OK, because this is a morally repugnant tax to many people.

So it's odd, isn't it, that the laws under which individuals gain protection against 'genuine' creditors through a 'fake' disposal of assets should if anything have become stronger, not weaker. This is an area in which the balkanised condition of international law (non-international law, in other words) shows no signs of the creeping globalisation affecting other walks of life. Banking, insurance, pensions, shipping, environment, accounting and a host of other bodies of law are converging. But not trust law, or the national court systems which cradle it. Why is this? Is it because lawyers are rich, too?

Logical or illogical, there is no sign that the trust has run its course, as our review of the main trust-friendly jurisdictions will show. Indeed, in 2006 the Swiss parliament approved the ratification of the Hague Convention on the Law applicable to Trusts and their Recognition.

Modifications to Swiss law to give effect to the Hague Convention concerned the Swiss International Private Law rules dealing with the recognition of foreign decisions and the jurisdiction of Swiss Courts in trust related matters, as well as the introduction into the solvency and bankruptcy law of the principle of segregation of trust assets.

Investec Trust Switzerland Managing Director Xavier Isaac stated at the time that the ratification had sent a clear signal to the international finance community that Switzerland recognised the importance of the Anglo-Saxon trust concept as an essential component of the wider wealth management proposition and of the need for an adequate legal framework when dealing with trust structures.

“It is a major development in the trust landscape internationally and for Switzerland,” he announced, continuing: “Ratification is great as it dissipates much of the uncertainty for trusts in the Swiss legal system.”

Mr Isaac added that high net worth individuals (HNWI) coming to Switzerland expect a secure environment for the structuring and management of their wealth.

“It is therefore the clients who will benefit most from ratification as more and more HNWI will continue to place their confidence in the Swiss financial sector, opening bank accounts and viewing trusts as sound vehicles for wealth management,” he observed.

“It will also give additional international credibility and standing to Switzerland as a proper jurisdiction for wealth management activities in a context where Switzerland is too often the target of some EU and other countries."

“Switzerland is adjusting its existing rules so that Swiss law can now interact with trusts from a legal perspective."

“The Swiss Tax Conference is reviewing the tax treatment on trusts. While the taxation of settlors and beneficiaries in Switzerland is the most complex and sensitive part of the discussion I hope that trusts, which have non-resident settlors and beneficiaries but have Swiss trustees and/or are being administrated in Switzerland, will be treated on tax neutral basis."

The Report

Offshore Trusts Guide: Introduction

Offshore Trusts Guide: Jurisdictions

Bahamas Barbados Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Cook Islands Cyprus Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Liechtenstein Madeira Malta Mauritius Monaco Nevis New Zealand Panama Seychelles Turks & Caicos Vanuatu


Offshore Trusts News

Australian Tax Agency Announces Virtual Currency Tax Focus
Wednesday 9/6/2021
The Australian Taxation Office has expressed its concern that some taxpayers do not fully understand the tax implications of cryptocurrency gains.

Bahamas Announces Various VAT Changes In New Budget
Wednesday 9/6/2021
The Bahamas Government has announced various changes to its value-added tax regime in its new Budget, focusing on the real estate sector, including for sharing economy platforms.

Hong Kong Issues Tax Returns For Individuals
Wednesday 12/5/2021
On May 3, 2021, the Hong Kong Inland Revenue Department issued over 2.62 million tax returns for individuals for the year of assessment 2020-21.

Countries Discuss Post-Pandemic Tax Agenda At UN Council Meeting
Wednesday 12/5/2021
Experts speaking at the UN's Economic and Social Council's annual Special Meeting on International Cooperation in Tax Matters concluded that the international community must do more to tackle tax base erosion and profit shifting and offshore tax evasion.

China Halves Corporate Tax For Smallest Businesses
Thursday 15/4/2021
Chinese authorities have announced enhanced temporary tax breaks for small businesses.

US IRS Reminds Of FBAR Filing Obligation
Thursday 15/4/2021
The Internal Revenue Service is reminding US citizens, resident aliens, and any domestic legal entity that the deadline to file their annual Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (FBAR) is still April 15, 2021.

Hong Kong Issues 2020-21 Tax Returns
Tuesday 6/4/2021
On April 1, 2021, the Hong Kong Inland Revenue Department began issuing profits tax, property tax, and employer's returns for the year of assessment 2020-21.

UAE Sets Out VAT Rules For Social Media Income, Performers
Friday 19/3/2021
The United Arab Emirates' Federal Tax Authority has released a bulletin highlighting the value-added tax rights and obligations of performers and those who earn income from online platforms.

Singapore Explains Changes To 2021 Tax Filing Rules
Wednesday 3/3/2021
The Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore has said that it will be sending tax bills directly to certain taxpayers this tax filing season and will be simplifying filing arrangements for the self-employed.

Hong Kong Announces Tax Relief In 2021-22 Budget
Wednesday 3/3/2021
Hong Kong will grant taxpayers a waiver of up to HKD10,000 (USD1,290) of profits tax, salaries tax, and tax under personal assessment, the territory announced in its 2021-22 Budget.