This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Find out more here.  
 

Interest Free Loan In Breach Of Arms Length Principle, Says Indian Tribunal

Monday, February 8, 2010

The Delhi Income Tax Appellate has decided in the case of Perot Systems TSI (India) Ltd. that an interest-free loan to associated enterprises would not be consistent with the arm’s length principle of the transfer pricing provisions and a notional arm’s length interest can be imputed on the loan and taxed.

Perot advanced interest-free loans to its 100% foreign subsidiaries. The subsidiaries used those funds to make investments in other step-down subsidiaries.

Perot argued that the said “loans” were in fact “quasi-equity” and made out of commercial expediency. It was also argued that notional income could not be assessed to tax under the transfer pricing provisions of Chapter X.

ITAT decided that:

  • The argument that the loans were in reality not loans but were quasi-capital cannot be accepted because the agreements show them to be loans and there is no special feature in the contract to treat them otherwise. There was also no reason why the loans were not contributed as capital if they were actually meant to be a capital contribution;
  • The argument that the loans were given on interest-free terms out of commercial expediency is not acceptable because this was not a case of an ordinary business transaction but was an international transaction between associated enterprises. One had to see whether the transaction was at arms length under the transfer pricing provisions;
  • The argument that notional interest income cannot be assessed was not acceptable in the context of transfer pricing. S 92(1) provides that any income arising from an international transaction has to be computed having regard to the arm’s length price. S. 92B (1) defines an “international transaction” to mean “a transaction between two or more associated enterprises … in the nature of … lending or borrowing money …” In considering the “arms length” price of a loan, the rate of interest has to be considered and income on account of interest can be attributed;
  • The result of the transaction was that Perot's income in India would reduce while that of the associate in Bermuda would increase. This was a classic case of violation of transfer pricing norms where profits were shifted to bring down the aggregate tax incidence of a multi-national group; and
  • The Proviso to s. 92C (2) which allows a variation of 5% from the arms length price applied only when “more than one price was determined” and an arithmetic mean adopted. The Tax authority had adopted the LIBOR rate of 2.39% and added the arithmetic mean of ‘average basis point’ charged by other companies which came to 1.64% and worked out the arms length price at LIBOR + 1.64%. As only one LIBOR rate had been applied which was adjusted for some basis points, it could not be said that “more one price” had been used so as to attract the Proviso.

Mailing List

Click here to manage your mailing list preferences, or view our privacy statement.


The Report

Offshore Trusts Guide: Introduction

The History of Offshore Trusts
Development of Professional Competence in the Jurisdictions
What Future for the Trust?
The New Age of Transparency
The Swiss Association of Trust Companies
The Society of Trusts and Estates Practitioners

Offshore Trusts Guide: Jurisdictions

Bahamas

Bahamas: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees
Bahamas: 2006 Private Trust Companies Legislation

Barbados

Barbados: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees
Barbados: Supervisory and Licensing Regime and Fees

Bermuda

Bermuda: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees
Bermuda: Supervisory and Licensing Regime and Fees

British Virgin Islands

British Virgin Islands: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees
British Virgin Islands: Special Trusts Act 2003
British Virgin Islands: The Trustee Act 2003
British Virgin Islands: :Supervisory and Licensing Regime and Fees
British Virgin Islands: New Laws on Private Trust Companies
British Virgin Islands: New Private Trust Company Regulations

Cayman Islands

Cayman Islands: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees
Cayman Islands: Supervisory and Licensing Regime and Fees

Cook Islands

Cook Islands: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees
Cook Islands: Supervisory and Licensing Regime and Fees

Cyprus

Cyprus: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees
Cyprus: Supervision, Licensing and Tax

Gibraltar

Gibraltar: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees
Gibraltar: Legislation, Regulation and Supervision

Guernsey

Guernsey: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees
Guernsey: Trusts Law 2007

Isle of Man

Isle of Man: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees
Isle of Man: Supervisory and Licensing Regime
Isle of Man: Uses Clients and Tax Treatment

Jersey

Jersey: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees
Jersey: Supervisory and Licensing Regime
Jersey: Trusts Amendment Act 2006
Jersey: Foundations

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees
Liechtenstein: Regulation Supervision and Transparency
Liechtenstein: Characteristics of Liechtenstein Trusts
Liechtenstein: Foundations

Madeira

Madeira: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees

Malta

Malta: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees
Malta: The Trust and Trustees Act 2004

Mauritius

Mauritius: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees
Mauritius: Characteristics of the 2001 Trusts Act
Mauritius: Additional Provisions of the 2001 Trusts Act
Mauritius: Tax Treatment

Monaco

Monaco: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees

Nevis

Nevis: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees

Panama

Panama: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees
Panama: Requirements for Acting as Trust Company in Panama

Seychelles

Seychelles: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees

Turks & Caicos

Turks & Caicos: Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees
Turks & Caicos: The Voidable Dispositions Ordinance

Vanuatu

Vanuatu Legal Framework and Formation Rules and Fees




Latest News

BVI Financial Firms Need To Develop New Niches
13/4/2017
BVI Finance, the financial services industry promotional agency, has said the industry must actively adapt to target new opportunities and promote new offerings internationally.

ADGM Revises Pooled Fund Capital Req's
11/4/2017
Abu Dhabi Global Market, the low-tax international financial center, has revised the capital requirements applicable to managers of collective investment funds, with effect from April 10, 2017.

ADGM Consults On Allowing REITs
6/4/2017
Abu Dhabi Global Market, the low-tax international financial center, is consulting stakeholders on plans to allow the establishment of private real estate investment trusts.

Gibraltar To Offer Foundations
4/4/2017
Gibraltar's Parliament recently passed a bill permitting the establishment of Private Foundations.

Gibraltar Acts To Preserve QROPS Status
3/4/2017
Gibraltar has made new pension regulations to maintain its attractiveness as a jurisdiction from which to transfer UK pensions.

Australia Consults On Taxation Of Stapled Structures
30/3/2017
The Australian Treasury has launched a consultation on the tax consequences of the re-characterization of trading income derived through the use of stapled structures.

Australian DPT Legislation Passes Senate
27/3/2017
The Australian Senate has passed legislation to introduce a diverted profits tax from July 1, 2017.

Guernsey Funds Sector Grew In 2016
27/3/2017
The total value of funds business in Guernsey grew by more than GBP28bn (USD32.5bn) last year.

New Zealand Explains Foreign Trust Disclosure Changes
27/3/2017
New Zealand has published guidance on the increased disclosure requirements for foreign trusts with New Zealand-resident trustees.

Canadian Budget Focuses On 'Tax Fairness'
23/3/2017
The tax measures contained in Canadian Finance Minister Bill Morneau's second Budget are focused on closing loopholes, cracking down on tax evasion and improving tax reliefs for the "middle class."

Jersey Regulator Issues AML/CTF Funds Guidance
16/3/2017
Jersey's financial services regulator, the Jersey Financial Services Commission, has issued new anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism guidance for Funds and Fund Operators.

More Tax Hikes For UK Taxpayers In 2017 Budget
9/3/2017
The UK Budget, released on March 9, 2017, featured tax measures to, among other things, hike taxes on self-employed workers, further close avenues for legal avoidance, and defer mandatory digital tax reporting until April 2019.

ACOSS Submits Recommendations For Australian Budget
2/3/2017
The Australian Council of Social Services has urged that the Government abolish ineffective tax concessions, introduce a sugary drinks tax, and scrap its company tax proposals.

MEPs Call For Wider Access To Beneficial Ownership Data
1/3/2017
EU citizens would be able to view information in registers of beneficial ownership without having to demonstrate a "legitimate interest," under proposed amendments the Anti-Money Laundering Directive.

New Zealand Tax Changes Enter Into Force
28/2/2017
A Bill including provisions to simplify New Zealand's tax processes, reduce compliance costs for smaller businesses, and tighten foreign trust disclosure rules received Royal Assent on February 21.